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2016

2\2016

New High-Rise Building Design Rules and Norms

A. N. Kolubkov, NP AVOK Vice-President, Director of LLC PPF AK
Keywords: high-rise building, engineering systems, regulating document, road map, design

The first edition of High-rise buildings. Design rules code of rules is prepared and put to public discussion. Feasibility of development of the code of rules is determined by the need to create a previously missing normative and regulatory base for actively growing high-rise construction.

The article discusses the main provisions of a draft of this document.

Use of Directional Nozzles for Air Distribution in Air Conditioning Systems

Yu. A. Tabunschikov, Doctor of Engineering, Professor, Moscow Architecture Institute
M. M. Brodach, Candidate of Engineering, Professor, Moscow Architecture Institute
Keywords: air distribution, air conditioning system, Moscow Institute of Architecture systems, air delivery velocity, air movement

The article describes a solution for conditioning air distribution using directional nozzles in a unique facility - track and field facility in Mihaylovgrad (since 1993 Montana, Bulgaria), that was built using Moscow Institute of Architecture designed constructions.

Thermal Comfort for Men and Women Feel the Difference

B. W. Olesen, Ph. D. Fellow REHVA and ASHRAE, Professor International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark
Keywords: thermal comfort, metabolism, environment temperature, microclimate

Lately in the international mass media in USA, Canada, Great Britain, Denmark and Germany we see the discussion of differences between men and women from the perspective of thermal comfort and preferable air temperature inside rooms. Lets try to clarify this question.

Adaptive Air Pressure System with Automatically Regulated Parameters

A. V. Sverdlov, FlaktWoods Russia General Director
A. P. Volkov, Candidate of Engineering, Underground Structures Ventilation Systems Expert in FlaktWoods Russia
Keywords: smoke ventilation, pressure on windward fa?ade, air supply pressure, wind speed

One of the purposes of multistory building or multitier underground structure smoke protection system calculation is determination of parameters of the smoke exhaust fans from corridors and air supply to smoke-free staircases and to elevator shafts that ensure smoke-free conditions in staircases. This provides for protection of evacuation routes from burning areas.

Overview of Draft Changes No. 1 to SP 7.13130.2013 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Fire safety requirements

B. B. Kolchev, Head of Utility Equipment Fire Resistance and Smoke Protection of Buildings Department of FSBI Fire Safety Research Institute of the Ministry of Emergency of Russia
Keywords: smoke ventilation, fire safety, smoke tunnel ventilation

AVOK master class dedicated to overview and clarification of changes in current regulatory documents on fire safety and smoke protection took place in December of 2015. This material is dedicated to draft changes in SP 7.13130.2013 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Fire safety requirements.

Use of Quasimembranes for Measurement and Regulation of Air Flow in Systems with Quantitative Regulation

E. Ya. Kernerman, Candidate of Engineering, Head of Expert-Analytical Bureau of NP AVOK Siberia.
A. I. Muhin, Candidate of Engineering, Executive Director of NP AVOK Siberia.
M. Nudelman, PE, ASHRAE Member

Keywords: quasimembrane, ventilation, air flow, air flow regulation

One of the main methods for reduction of energy costs of operation of multizone ventilation and air conditioning systems is regulation of their capacity based on changes in load in serviced rooms. Use of adaptive systems with quantitative regulation becomes efficient only when the regulating algorithm is based on the information on the air flow size (air flowrate) continuously controlled in the process of the systems operation in different modes.

This methods includes measurement and regulation of not only the air flowrate in individual zones using terminal units of VAV, FPB, etc. types, but also the total air quantity coming into the system. This allows for development of an optimal system operation algorithm and improvement of the energy efficiency of its operation.

This article is dedicated to a narrower question: optimization of the methods of measurement of the total air flowrate coming into the system (or removed from it).

Energy Efficient Ventilation of Hot Shops in Public Catering Enterprises

A. V. Livchak, Candidate of Engineering, Halton Vice-President
Keywords: air flowrate, aerodynamic characteristics, CFD models, adaptive ventilation, balancing valve

Restaurants are considered public buildings with the highest specific energy consumption per unit of area. And the main energy consumers are kitchen equipment and HVAC system, their total contribution is up to 80% of the total energy consumed by restaurants. The path to development of an energy efficient design of a restaurant always starts from a heat source from the food production technology and kitchen equipment. Low efficiency devices of high power additionally heat up the production area and require high air exchange rate, i.e. increase the energy consumption for HVAC. More efficient kitchen equipment, such as induction cookers and combination steam ovens, spends less energy on heat production and does not heat up the production area as much, thus reducing the energy consumption for kitchen ventilation and cooling.

The next step towards an energy efficient design is HVAC system optimization the subject of this article. Air flowrate through kitchen exhaust is the most important element of an HVAC design, since it dictates the amount of energy consumed by hot shop ventilation system. And really, the higher air flowrate through local exhausts leads to higher consumption by motors of exhaust and supply fans, and the energy required for cooling or heating of air supplied to production area to compensate for the exhaust.

Energy Conservation and Climatology

V. K. Savin, Head of Thermal Physics and Building Climatology Laboratory of NIISPh, Associate Member of Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Science
Keywords: energy conservation, climate, buildings, construction district, norms, harmonization, global warming

In order to supply the building industry with source data for design, the existing climatic impacts was adjusted and new hourly indicators of climatic impact on buildings and structures was developed. It was shown that norms were not updated for a long time. They did not take into account the global warming and contain an insufficient set of climatic characteristics for design of energy efficient buildings.

Principles of Construction of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, Heat and Cold Supply Systems in Cultural Buildings

Ya. G. Kronfeld
Keywords: temperature and moisture conditions, water based heating systems, air based heating systems, air distribution, microclimate

In addition to the various factors affecting the construction of heating and ventilation systems in cultural buildings, one of the most important ones is creation of favorable climatic conditions allowing to use them as buildings for museums and churches. The designed systems must ensure the required parameters inside rooms, taking into consideration the conditions common for their designation.

1\2016

A building must think. New Years essay

Yu. A. Tabunschikov, President of NP AVOK

Keywords: building, environment, modelling, smart building, mathematical model

Author does not suppose that building will think like a person, but believes that a building, and namely all of its parts, will form a single interrelated intellectual system able to model interaction with the surrounding world, inside environment and humans, and, the most important it will be able to learn thus increasing its intellectual level. Therefore the term thinking building will mean that the building, as an intellectual system in the process of its functioning takes more and more correct decisions on the basis of its self-education, self-learning.

Heating Systems Modern Solutions

Keywords: heating, radiant heating, individual apartment heating system, horizontal heating system, built-in convector, gas infrared radiator

The modern building industry offers a wide selection of heating equipment and technologies. In particular, these include individual apartment water based heating systems with different heating appliances; air based heating systems combined with ventilation systems; floor heating systems; panel-radiant heating systems; heating systems with infrared radiators

Selection of heating systems and appliances depends on many factors, main of which are an ability to maintain the design air temperature in serviced rooms during the entire heating period; compliance with the energy efficient requirements; safety for life and health of residents and maintenance staff; protection of large glass surfaces from condensation; providing a possibility to adjust the air-heating mode inside rooms; reliability, duration and repair ability. Also one should take into consideration climatic conditions, thermos-technical characteristics of building envelope, architecture and designation of a building (residential, public, production), size of serviced rooms, their category, etc.

Supply and Exhaust Ventilation with Mechanical Excitation in Individual Residential Buildings: Problems, Mistakes, Solutions

Atze Boerstra MSc., BBA Indoor Environmental Consultancy, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Jaap Balvers MSc., BBA Indoor Environmental Consultancy, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Keywords: supply and exhaust ventilation, mechanical ventilation, microclimate, exhaust air heat recuperation

In Discussion club section of the previous issue the magazine editorial has published opinions of national and foreign experts on application of mechanical ventilation systems in residential building. Discussion of this material in AVOK forums has demonstrated: specialists believe that under the current economic conditions and low qualification of the service staff the widespread switching to mechanical ventilation in residential buildings is not possible, and experience of foreign countries has limited application in our country. We offer our readers a material dedicated to application of mechanical ventilation systems in individual residential buildings using the Netherlands as an example. In this article the authors tries to analyze typical complaints and, taking into consideration their experience in design, installation and operation of ventilation systems, offer the specialists and users advices on how to avoid problems and improve the quality of microclimate in buildings equipped with mechanical ventilation systems.

Air Distribution in School Classrooms

Risto Kosonen, Aalto University, Finland
Panu Mustakallio, Halton Oy, Finland

Keywords: air distribution, school, heat gains, heat losses

One of the main reasons for low quality of microclimate in school classrooms incorrect selection of air distribution devices. Finish specialists have compared the most common air distribution solutions for warm and cold periods of the year. The comparison results are presented in this article.

Acoustic omfort: how to make a low-noise mechanical ventilation

V. A. Hroshin, Technical Director at Blagovest-C+

Keywords: ventilation system, ventilation channel, noise, sound pressure level

If the ventilation is already installed, most likely you will not be able to radically improve its acoustic characteristics. It is cheaper to install a new low-noise ventilation system. Low-noise ventilation system must be designed by an experienced designer, and installed only by qualified installers. And for the client it is better to not just seat waiting, but to critically assess equipment and technical solutions used in the project, as well as the main stages of installation and startup works.

In this material we offer several practical advices designed to assist clients who order low-noise ventilation systems for apartments and cottages.

Impact of Internal Heat Gains on Selection of Building Envelope and Volume-Spatial Solutions

V. I. Kostin, Doctor of Engineering, Professors, Novosibirsk Architecture and Construction University (Sibstrin)

Keywords: internal heat gains, building envelope, microclimate

The cost of artificial cooling of buildings depends not only on climatic conditions, but also on the type of building envelope. This article demonstrates the possibility of constructing buildings with non-stationary internal heat gains made of light two-layer constructions. As a constructive layer it is possible to use brick layer 0.38 m thick, prefabricated and monolithic reinforced concrete.

Condition and Perspectives of Assessment of Conformity of buildings to the Fire Safety Requirements

E. A. Meshalkin, Doctor of Engineering, Professor, Vice-President for Science in NPO Puls

Keywords: regulatory document, special technical specification, code of rules, fire safety, fire risk

Fire safety is one of the components of the countrys national security. Modern trends of the economic integration of Russian and European countries, initiatives in development of international cooperation dictate the needs for unified normative-technical regulation, including in fire safety. During development of Federal Law No. 123-FZ Technical regulations on fire safety requirements the authors have included the basis of harmonization of Russian norms and European ones. Development of European approach in Russia to fire safety regulation in construction using the mechanisms for evaluation of conformity to fire safety requirements requires further improvement of fire risks estimation methods for various objects, including the ones with mass presence of people. The article discusses the perspectives of legislation development in this area.

Technical Assets Management

Henning Balck, Professor, Balck + Partner / IPS Institute of Design Methods and Service Technologies, Heidelberg, Germany

Keywords: maintenance and repair, investments, life cycle of assets, service life, strategic components method

Increasing age of building equipment requires higher spending on maintenance and repairs (hereinafter MaR) and, at the same time, limits the timeframe for the capital investments. The main costs component is the constantly growing number of repairs, difficultly forecasted and becoming more complicated modernization and rehabilitation of buildings infrastructure. We need new strategies that hold back the growth of such costs. This is possible through integration of MaR methods and energy efficiency, taking into consideration the life cycle of assets. In this magazine issue the editorial publishes an article dedicated to a comprehensive analysis of this issue. Translation and editing, as well as comments to this materials is provided by buildings automation expert V.V. Ilyin (LLC Loy & Hutz Rus).

Association of Heating Radiator Manufacturers Protection of Consumers from Low Quality and Unsafe Heating Appliances

Keywords: Association of Heating Radiator Manufacturers, Heating Radiator, heating system

Hearing on Protection of Consumers from Low Quality and Unsafe Heating Appliances took place in Public Chamber of the Russian Federation on 15 December 2015. The hearing was organized by Association of Heating Radiators Manufacturers APRO.

AVOK Webinars New Buildings Online

Keywords: ABOK, webinar, improve the qualification of specialists, education

ABOK Webinars are a demanded by the engineering community project of NP AVOK created to improve the qualification of specialists: dissemination of information about the new equipment, technologies, design and regulatory documents, software, as well as information support of specialists in Russia and abroad. AVOK Webinar is an interactive video-presentation during which the speaker (or a group of specialists) answers to questions of Webinar participants in the online mode.

Principles of Construction of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, Heat and Cold Supply Systems in Cultural Buildings

Ya.G. Kronfeld, Engineer

Keywords: temperature and moisture conditions, water based heating systems, air based heating systems, air distribution, microclimate

In addition to the various factors affecting the construction of heating and ventilation systems in cultural buildings, one of the most important ones is creation of favorable climatic conditions allowing to use them as buildings for museums and churches. The designed systems must ensure the required parameters inside rooms, taking into consideration the conditions common for their designation.


2015

1/2015

Professional Engineers Union

Yu.A. Tabunschikov, President of PN AVOK

Keywords: NP AVOK, engineer, occupational standard, attestation

The National Association Chamber of automation, ventilation, heating, air conditioning, heat supply, power supply, water supply and removal, gas supply for buildings and structures and building thermal physics engineers was created on 29 September 2014 and registered in the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation on 23 October 2014. The article presents the main objectives and areas of the Associations work.

Energy Efficient Solution for an Airport Ventilation System

S. V. Krupenya, General Director of IONAIR KLIMAT

Keywords: airport terminals, energy efficiency, air quality

Today airport terminals in Russia do not meet the modern requirements for the comfort of passengers, as well as employees of the complex itself. In order to improve the air quality airports need to look for innovative systems to meet the changing market demands, on one hand, and to prevent an increase in the current maintenance costs, on the other hand in other words, to ensure energy efficiency of innovations.

2 Ventilation Systems Efficiency Criterion

A. L. Naumov, Candidate of Engineering, General Director of LLC NPO TERMEK

D. V. Kapko, Chief Specialist at LLC NPO TERMEK

Keywords: air quality, carbon dioxide, air exchange, energy efficiency, energy saving.

Ecologists, doctors, diagnosts, as well as engineers, ventilation and air conditioning system designers pay special attention to the impact of building air quality on the peoples wellbeing. Humans physical condition depends on the air quality: with bad air quality people feel sick, lose concentration, develop diseases, etc.

Smoke Exhaust Ventilation Systems

Keywords: smoke exhaust ventilation, fire safety

As the practice shows, compliance with fire safety requirements during the design of smoke exhaust ventilation systems is a difficult task that brings more questions than answers. The December ABOK workshop Smoke exhaust systems. Design concepts according to Construction Rules SP 7.13130 and SP 154.13130 and Special Technical Regulation STU with deviation from the current regulatory documents was held to help the designers in this complex issue. The event was attended by 150 specialists from 20 Russian cities and towns.

In this article the editorial staff answers to certain questions asked to B.B. Kolchev during the workshop.

Air Flow Reverse in Longitudinal Ventilation and Smoke Exhaust in Underground and Covered Parking Lots

A.P. Volkov, Candidate of Engineering, Expert in Underground Facilities Ventilation Systems at Flakt Woods Russia

A.V. Sverdlov, General Director Flakt Woods Russia

Keywords: jet ventilation system, smoke exhaust, parking lot, fan capacity

The article analyzes European experience in design of longitudinal ventilation system using jet fans installed on floor slabs of already built facilities. Purpose of the article to demonstrate feasibility of using longitudinal jet ventilation systems with air flow reversing inside covered and underground parking lots.

People, Passion, Performance. Inaugural Address of ASHRAE President

Thomas H. Phoenix, 2014 2015 ASHRAE President

Keywords: ASHRAE, performance, building energy quotient, building energy disclosure

AVOK magazine has repeatedly published Inaugural Addresses of ASHRAE Presidents.

In this issue we publish the Inaugural Address of 2014 2015 ASHRAE President Thomas H. Phoenix that defines the priority objectives of AHSRAE improvement of buildings energy efficiency and development of the most technically achievable energy saving solutions, as well as creation of commonly approved procedure for assessment of energy efficiency of buildings.

Energy use in buildings: analysis and evaluation methods

Shuqin Chen, Research Center of Green Building and New Energy, Shanghai, China

Hiroshi Yoshino, Department of architecture and building science, Tohoku University, Japan

Keywords: energy use, monitoring, data collection.

One of the most significant barriers for achieving the goal of substantially improving energy efficiency of buildings is the lack of knowledge about the factors determining the energy use.

Acoustic Parameters of Flexible Air Ducts used in HVAC Systems

V.P. Gusev, Head of NIISPh RAASN Laboratory

M.Yu. Leshko, Senior Research Assistant, NIISPh

A.V. Sidorina, Senior Research Assistant, NIISPh RAASN

Keywords: flexible air duct, acoustic parameters, aerodynamic characteristics, acoustic performance

The practice of design and operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems (HVAC) in residential and public buildings widely uses the so called flexible air ducts, the advantages of which before the standard ones include simplicity, convenient installation and low space demand. Flexible air ducts efficiently reduce the aerodynamic noise inside of them created by different HVAC system elements, but are limited in reduction of air noise radiated by their walls into the surrounding environment. Results of research of the acoustic parameters of flexible air ducts on an aeroacoustic test stand in NIISPh RAASN are presented in this article.

2/2015

AVOK 2015

Yu. A. Tabunschikov, President of NP AVOK, Professor

Keywords: AVOK, recommendations AVOK, conference, webinar

The Mission of NP AVOK to facilitate achievement of sustainable development of the building industry through scientific and technical advancements that ensure high quality of the human environment. The article gives a short overview of the organizations history and updated action plan for 2015.

Special Aspects of Applying the Requirements of Technical Regulations, Codes of Rules and Special Technical Regulations in Design of Smoke Exhaust Ventilation

E. A. Meshalkin, Doctor of Engineering, Professor, Vice President for Science at NPO Puls.

Keywords: special technical regulations, STR, fire protection, smoke protection

The existing constantly expanding system of regulatory documents (dealing not only with fire safety) is far from being perfect, often superfluous and does not allow the investors and developers to choose economically and functionally efficient architectural, space-planning, structural and engineering solutions. The article offers an overview of the current regulatory framework in smoke protection, and analyzes the possibilities for its improvement.

AVOK Standard Recommendations on Improvement of Energy Efficiency of Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems

Keywords: standard, ventilation system, air conditioning system, energy efficiency, energy labeling

AVOK Standard Recommendations on Improvement of Energy Efficiency of Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems was developed by specialists from LLC NPO TERMEK, NP AVOK and LLC INNOVENT with support from the Ministry of Education and Science of RF, United Nations Development Program, GEF Standards and labeling for promotion of energy efficiency in the Russian Federation to provide information support to specialists during design, installation and operation of ventilation and air conditioning systems.

Design Phase Commissioning

Dave Mcfarlane, member Ashrae; Thomas Farmer, P.E., member Ashrae

Keywords: commissioning, Certified Commissioning Authority, project design manual

With this publication AVOK magazine editorial staff continues the series of articles that address a crucial and relevant subject: the operational aspect has to be taken into consideration during all stages of the building creation. And here there is a number of pitfalls that have to be efficiently avoided. This is not something that is taught in school, but, first of all, the accumulated practical experience.

Energy Efficiency and HVAC Systems in Existing and Historic Buildings

Livio de Santoli, Universit? degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, President of AiCARR
Francesca R. dAmbrosio Alfano, Universit? degli Studi di Salerno, AiCARR

Keywords: historic building, energy efficiency, heating system, ventilation system, air conditioning system

The problem of rehabilitation of historic buildings is one of the key issues for reduction of the energy use in Europe. And this is precisely the question addressed by the manual on energy rehabilitation developed by Italian Association of Heating, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Specialists (AiCARR). The article discusses the main provisions of this manual

Energy Saving Heat Recuperation System in a New Perinatal Center

O. Ya. Kokorin, Professor, Doctor of Engineering, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering
A. P. Inkov, Candidate off Engineering, Director of LLC Ecoterm
N. V. Tovaras, Candidate of Engineering, General Director of LLC NPF Himholodservice

Keywords: heat recuperation, energy efficiency, heat supply, air exchange, exhaust air heat recuperation

Two-stage design of large facilities frequently leads to situations when design documents for General design and Detailed design stages are prepared by two different organizations. At the same time, specifications for connection to the heating networks are defined and approved during the first stage of the project, and further modification of the specifications, if needed, bears financial, time and organizational costs. One of the ways to avoid this problem is by using energy saving technologies in the project, that allow for more efficient use of the thermal energy received from the district networks for the building utility systems.

Energy Consumption and Aerodynamic Resistance of a Mechanical Ventilation System

Cristiano Vergani

Keywords: mechanical ventilation, aerodynamic resistance, air filtration, filter life cycle, Eurovent

Ventilation and air conditioning systems in public buildings account for 30% of the total energy consumption. A significant share of energy in mechanical ventilation systems is spent to overcome the aerodynamic resistance in the network air preparation system and air ducts. The amount of pressure drop across filters is directly proportional to their efficiency level and is ultimately determined by the filtration quality of air supplied to a space. The demand for efficient air cleaning is growing. At the same time efforts are being put in reduction of energy consumption by air cleaning systems.

Efficient Conditioning of Production Spaces with High Heat Load

A. S. Rubtsov, General Director of LLC Vent-Design

Keywords: ventilation system, ID-diagram, heat load, heat exchanger, filter

The article takes a look at a process section of production of different components of wafers in one of Siberian plant. The presented solution allows for reduction of loads on the cooling system.

Software for HVAC Systems

Keywords: AVOK, conference

XVII Conference and Expo Software for heating, ventilation, air conditioning, water supply, heat supply and automation systems. Design, calculations, equipment selection took place in Moscow on 1112 February 2015.

Global Trends in Ventilation Standards Development

P. Ole Fanger

Keywords: ventilation, pollutant sources, indoor air quality, filtration

Why do we ventilate buildings and how intensive does the ventilation have to be? These are the underlying questions that engineers, architects and hygienists have been trying to answer for the last two hundred years. Over these years the ideas that ventilation is based on underwent dramatic changes. Ventilation standards are currently being revised in different parts of the world. The article discusses the general trends of this process and looks at them from the historic perspective.

3/2015

Microclimate and Air Quality in Office Buildings. Comparison of Russian and EU Norms

V. V. Ustinov, Executive Director of LLC Lindab

Keywords: microclimate parameters, thermal effect

Todays design market offers such service, as adaptation of projects developed in the EU to the Russian norms. A designer usually tries to maximally preserve the existing solutions, checking for their compliance with rules and norms in effect in Russia. The article analyzes differences in approach to definition of the microclimate parameters. The main accent is made on HVAC systems that maintain the required microclimate in administrative buildings. The article discusses general requirements established for office spaces by Russian norms. The main objective of the work is to determine the main differences between national and European methods.

Microclimate Parameters of Utility Systems Design and Assessment of Building Energy Efficiency

B. W. Olesen, Ph.D. Fellow REHVA and ASHRAE, Professor International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

Keywords: microclimate, standard, quality of microclimate, thermal comfort, air exchange, outside air flowrate

This article discusses the main methods and innovations in new all-European regulatory documents standards EN16798-1, prEN 16798-1 and Technical Report prTR 16798-2.

Air Conditioning Systems in Iceberg Winter Sports Complex

Keywords: air conditioning, air distribution, supply air

In this magazine issue the editors are offering readers a chapter from book by M.G. Tarabanov Air conditioning. Part 1, dedicated to air conditioning systems in Iceberg Winter Sports Complex, built for figure skating and short-track competitions during the Olympics in Sochi. This unique and extremely complex facility required new principal solutions from the designers for the heating, ventilation, air conditioning and heat and cold supply systems.

Special Aspects of Applying the Requirements of Technical Regulations, Codes of Rules and Special Technical Regulations in Design of Smoke Exhaust Ventilation

E. A. Meshalkin, Doctor of Engineering, Professor, Vice President for Science at NPO Puls.

Keywords: special technical regulations, STR, fire protection, smoke protection

The existing constantly expanding system of regulatory documents (dealing not only with fire safety) is far from being perfect, often superfluous and does not allow the investors and developers to choose economically and functionally efficient architectural, space-planning, structural and engineering solutions. The article offers an overview of the current regulatory framework in smoke protection, and analyzes the possibilities for its improvement.

Feasibility Study of Thermal Protection of Buildings

I. N. Kovalev, Candidate of Engineering, Associate Professor at Rostov State University of Railroad Transport (Rostov-na-Donu)

Keywords: energy conservation, thermal protection of buildings, coefficient of economic efficiency of investments

Specialists have repeated raised the question of feasibility of enhancement of thermal protection of buildings, selection of insulation thickness. From the thermal engineering perspective it is possible to calculate the minimum acceptable thermal insulation thickness. Further achievement of the task of determining the optimal thermal insulation thickness is sealing with economic calculations. We will consider some principles of rational decision making for implementation of energy saving technologies.

Gas-Driven Multizone Climate Control System

A. N. Kolubkov, Vice President NP AVOK, Director of LLC PPF AK

Keywords: gas-driven system, GHP system, internal combustion engine, heat recuperation, heat exchange unit

There is a number of interesting modern solutions dealing with comfort that achieve the objectives of hot water supply in parallel or separately. One of the solutions for achievement of comfortable energy efficient climate is presented in this article. The article talks about GHP (Gas Heat Pump) gas-driven multizone climate control system.

Comparison of Energy Efficiency of Steel Panel Radiators

Mikk Maivel, Tallinn University of Technology

Martin Konzelmann, WTP W?rmetechnische Pr?fgesellschaft mbH

Jarek Kurnitski, Tallinn University of Technology

Keywords: water heating system, radiators, heat flow, energy efficiency, radiant temperature, resultant temperature

The article discusses the results of comparison of parameters of radiators with parallel and serial connection of panels. The results show that serial connection of panels allows for an increase in the room radiant temperature, however they did not show any noticeable difference in energy efficiency and energy consumption between compared elements.

Methods Inform Decisions on the Choice of Composition Equipment Innovative Projects

A. V. Samkov, Ph.D., Professor, Department of economic disciplines Smolensk branch of VPO REU them. G. V. Plekhanov

A.V. Zyatkova, assistant professor, Department of natural sciences and the humanities Smolesnk branch VPO REU them. G. V. Plekhanov

Keywords: innovative projects, the task of choosing the method for the analyst hierarchies.

This paper proposes methods for solving problems of choice of equipment with the technical and economic feasibility of projects and provide decision support. On the example of selecting samples of boiler equipment solved the problem of comparative evaluation and selection using a set of methods: the analytic hierarchy process, network analysis and pattern recognition. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods, practical recommendations for their use.

Methods for Justification of Decisions in Equipment Selection for Innovation Projects

A.V. samkov, Doctor of Engineering, Professor of the School of Economics, Smolensk Branch of FGBOU VPO Russian University of Economics named after G.V. Plehanov

A.V. Zyatkova, Associate Professor of the School of Natural Sciences and Humanitarian Studies, Smolensk Branch of FGBOU VPO Russian University of Economics named after G.V. Plehanov

Keywords: innovation projects, selection objective, hierarchies analysis method

The article offers methods of achievement of objectives of selecting equipment for feasibility justification of projects and support of solutions. Using boiler equipment selection as an example, the solution is presented for objective of comparative assessment and their selection using a set of methods: analysis of hierarchies, analysis of networks and identification of images.

Energy Conservation Engineering and Microclimate Quality

Keywords: NP AVOK, conference, microclimate

XVII NP AVOK Conference Efficient heating, ventilation, air conditioning and heat supply systems, which has already became a tradition, took place in Saint Petersburg on 20 March 2015. The conference was supplemented with AVOK master-class on smoke exhaust ventilation systems.

AVOK Workshops and Master Classes

Keywords: NP AVOK, master classes, workshop

The article talks about AVOK field master classes and workshops held in 2014 and started in this year.

Design of Air Exchange Systems for Buildings with Performance Halls

T.S. Shubina, Candidate of Engineering, Associate Professor at Moscow Institute of Architecture

Keywords: microclimate, air exchange, air distribution device

When designing a performance arts buildings, the most responsible and most difficult solution from architectural and microclimate engineering perspective is the performance hall with its stage. This material is dedicated to design specifics of such facilities.

4/2015

Professional Knowledge Sustainability Strategy

M. M. Brodach, Vice-President of NP AVOK, Professor, Moscow Architecture Institute

Keywords: AVOK webinars, congress tour, online calculations, AVOK workshop

The classical education system is relying on fundamental scientific knowledge gained in universities with its subsequent perfection during routine work, but mainly thanks to participation in scientific conferences and reading of publications in professional magazines.

Smoke Exhaust Ventilation Systems

Keywords: smoke protection, smoke suction device, smoke exhaust ventilation

Fulfilment of the fire safety requirements during design of smoke exhaust ventilation systems is a difficult task that often raises many questions for designers. Each fire safety requirement has to be correlated with specific terms of the design, the designer needs to analyze utility systems design criteria, correctness of the assignment issued to the architects, draftsmen and process engineers.

In this magazine issue questions of specialists related to fire safety and smoke exhaust ventilation are answered by Head of the Engineering Equipment Fire Resistance and Smoke Protection of Buildings and Structures Sector of the Department of Fire Resistance of Building Structures and Engineering Equipment FGBU VNIIPO of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia Boris Borisovich Kolchev.

High-Rise Complex Federation Tower

I. N. Smirnova, General Director of LLC Design Bureau Rimax

N. V. Shilkin, Candidate of Engineering, Professor, Moscow Architecture Institute

Keywords: high-rise complex, fire compartment, supply ventilation system, exhaust ventilation system, cold supply, excessive heat, air exchange, heat gain

High-Rise Complex Federation Tower is a unique structure, claiming the title of the highest building not only in Russia, but in Europe as well. A series of articles will discuss specifics of engineering solutions used in the complex.

Vapor-Condensate Systems: Specifics of Application and Operation

Keywords: vapor-condensate system, heat supply, water hammer, thermal insulation

A Webinar took place in March of this year, dedicated to modern efficient vapor-condensate systems. This material talks about the specifics of use, operation and regulation of such systems that were covered during webinar. Lecturer Marina Viktorovna Kuzmenko, Senior Engineer of Vapor-Condensate Systems Department at ADL.

Ventilation for non-residential buildings Performance requirements for ventilation and room-conditioning system

C. H?ndel, Convenor CEN/TC 156 WG20: Revision of EN 13779, European Ventilation Industry Association (EVIA), Fachverband Gebude-Klima e.V. (FGK)

Keywords: ventilation, ventilation rate, specific fan power, heat recovery

Over almost 10 years, EN 13779 ventilation for nonresidential buildings performance requirements for ventilation and roomconditioning systems is used as a basic standard for the design of ventilation systems within Europe (draft in 2003 and EN in 2007). The standard specifies a common understanding of ventilation systems in Europe and provides a classification system for key performance data.

Aerodynamics of Development Areas and Buildings

Yu. A. Tabunschikov, Professor, Doctor of Engineering, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences

M. N. Efremov, Engineer, NP AVOK

Keywords: aerodynamics, wind pressure, aerodynamic coefficient, building flowover, building air conditions

Questions of development areas and building aerodynamics were always considered quite important, and on a number of occasions determinative for building ventilation design and inside building airflow calculations, evaluation of the buildings impact on the aerodynamic conditions of the adjacent territories, selection of the building envelope with the required air permeability, location of supply and exhaust devices and their construction.

Also, significant pressure difference on windward and leeward building exterior surfaces can create strong air flows inside buildings, requiring special measures: airlocking of entrance doors, staircases, air-tightening of garbage chutes, etc. And there is a number of issues dealing with aerodynamics of development areas and buildings, including dissipation of hazardous substances, location of pedestrian walkways, formation of snow deposits, etc.

Russian Green Standard for World Cup 2018 Stadiums

Keywords: green standard, football stadium, rating system, environment protection, resource conservation

On March, 31, Russia-2018 steering committee held a workshop on implementation of green standards for construction of football stadiums for the World Cup. The workshop was attended by representatives of the developers and design organizations, regional nature protection agencies, international and Russian experts in environmental construction. Pursuant to the FIFA requirements, all stadiums must pass environmental certification before the beginning of World Cup 2018 according to one of the chosen standards, including the national one. Workshop organizer: M. S. Verhunova, Sustainable Development Unit Director, Russia-2018 Steering Committee.

Resolution of Air Distribution Problems in a Wrestling Sport Hall

D. M. Denisihina, CJSC Byuro tehniki

R. Zh. Shupasheva, CJSC Byuro tehniki

A. N. Kolubkov, LLC PPF AK

Keywords: air distribution, temperature pattern, velocity field, mathematic modeling

Air distribution is the final type of air treatment in ventilation and air conditioning systems, and it practically completely defines the functionality of future systems, affecting the efficiency of design solutions, and, therefore, feasibility of investment in the utility systems.

The article presents a solution for development of an efficient air exchange and air distribution system in a wrestling sports hall with bleachers for 500 visitors in a newly designed sports school building.

Calculation of Air Conditioning Systems with Central Air Conditioners and Fan oils

M.G. Tarabanov, Vice-President of NP AVOK, Candidate of Engineering

Keywords: central air conditioner, fan coil, I-d diagram, heat and moisture balance of a room

Office and multifunction buildings, shopping centers, hotels and other facilities widely use air conditioning systems with central air conditioners that supply a certain design outside air quantity to a room, and fan coils as terminal units-coolers. Without giving much attention to advantages and disadvantages of such systems, we believe that in some cases such choice is just an unjustified tribute to the fashion.

The purpose of this article is to provide a calculation method for an air conditioning system (ACS) with fan coils, including plotting of air treatment processes on I-d diagram and selection of fan coils based on their operating mode.

The National Association AVOK Chamber in Novosibirsk

Keywords: AVOK, conference, workshop

III Conference Design experience, technical solutions and equipment of energy efficient engineering systems of buildings and structures. Green construction technologies. took place in Novosibirsk on April 7th, 2015. The Conference included AVOK Workshop Efficiency analysis for technical solutions in multistory and high-rise buildings based on the result of their operation.

Sapporo Sport Complex New Technical Solutions

Keywords: stadium, double arena, ventilation, air conditioning

The article talks about the technical concepts implemented during construction of Sapporo Sports Complex for 2002 football and professional baseball world cups.

5/2015

Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Architecture as the Development Vectors

G. V. Esaulov, Academician, Provost at Moscow Architecture Institute (MArchI)

Keywords: sustainable architecture, energy efficiency, green construction, environmental sustainability, rating system

The work of modern architects and city developers, engineers and technologists involved in various areas of design and construction, development and production of new materials, structures and technologies is closely related to the general trends of the socioeconomic development. More and more projects and buildings referred to as sustainable, green, environmentally sustainable, environmental, energy efficient and other similar terms. Their appearance is driven by the sustainable development model.

Obligatory Requirements for Design Documentation after 1 July 2015. Experts and Engineers Opinion

A. N. Kolubkov, Vice-President of NP AVOK, Director of LLC PPF AK, Expert at LLC Mosekspert.

Keywords: design documentation, code of rules, design, operation, expertise

The new stage of the expert communitys lie is coming, and we will live by its rules for the next 4 5 years. Therefore we need to address certain issues related to the design documentation.

Energy Efficiency, Life Cycle Cost and Green Standards

A. L. Naumov, Vice-President of NP AVOK, Candidate of Engineering, General Director of LLC NPO TERMEK.

D. V. Kapko, Chief Specialist at LLC NPO TERMEK.

O. S. Sudyina, LLC NPO TERMEK, Engineer at OJSC Central Scientific Research Institute of Industrial Buildings.

Keywords: life cycle costs, green standard, green building, energy conservation

Investors in construction of residential and public buildings designed for sale are not interested in minimization of the life cycle costs of projects, since the economy of operating costs during the life cycle is borne by the property buyers. A mechanism that will stimulate the investor can be a higher selling price of energy efficient building that meets the green construction criteria compared to a traditional building.

Start-up and Adjustment of Demand Controlled Ventilation

Mads Mysen, SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Norway

Peter G. Schild, SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Norway

Axel Cabl?, SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Norway

John Woollett, Swegon Air Academy, Sweden

Keywords: energy consumption, demand controlled ventilation, specific fan capacity, energy efficiency, system balancing

The article gives short description of the elements of creation of a demand controlled ventilation system that deserve special attention: energy efficiency and operational precision of the system; balancing and operation of the system.

Radiant Panel Building Heating and Cooling Systems

Keywords: energy efficiency, climate control systems, radiant panel heating and cooling systems, heat transfer media, heat rejection

Today specialists are becoming more and more interested in energy efficient climate control systems that can use low-temperature heat transfer media in heating mode and high-temperature heat transfer media in the cooling mode. Such systems include in particular radiant panel heating and cooling systems that an AVOK Webinar was dedicated to. The material provides answers to the most interesting questions raised during the event.

Engineering Equipment within a Complex Building Safety System

Keywords: climate control system, building safety system, pollutant, air filter, filtration, air intake

Building engineering equipment can constitute a risk factor in case of an environmental catastrophe, the most extreme form of which can include terrorist attacks using biological materials. On the other hand, when engineering systems are designed taking these risks into consideration, such systems can protect people inside the building. This is especially important for ensuring safety of public buildings where a large number of people can accumulate.

Modern Trends in Arrangement of Ventilation in Apartments of Multistory Residential Buildings

Keywords: ventilation system, natural ventilation, exhaust ventilation system, plenum valve, breather, ventilator

Natural ventilation systems are the most common ventilation systems for multi-apartment residential buildings widely used in mass construction even today. The main reasons for using such systems in construction are clear: simplicity and practically no operating costs. However shortcomings of such systems are also well known. These include passing of odors from one apartment to another, possibility of draughts during the cold season and in windy weather, dependence of air exchange on permeability of building envelope, outside air temperature and floor height where the apartment is located.

Source Data for Annual Heat Consumption Calculation in Buildings in Russia

V. I. Livchak, Candidate of Engineering

Keywords: heat consumption, heat gain, specific internal heat gain

The article offers a chart of specific internal heat gains during the business hours and duration of their use in residential and public buildings of various purpose. Heat gains include heat input from people, lighting, electrical equipment and appliances used (in residential buildings this includes heat input from district hot water supply system) for calculation of annual building heat consumption used for evaluation of energy efficiency of newly built, reconstructed and capitally renovated buildings.

59th REHVA General Assembly

Keywords: REHVA, AVOK, conference

The Annual meeting of the Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Associations (REHVA) General Assembly and Conference took place in Riga on 69 May 2015.

Energy Service Activities Today

Keywords: AVOK, conference, energy service activities

V Conference and Exhibition Energy Service Activities Today Practice and Investment Attractiveness of Energy Saving Projects took place in Moscow on 21 May 2015.

Ventilation in Residential Buildings with Typical Design

I. E. Vigdergauz, engineer

Keywords: ventilation, individual apartment ventilation system, exhaust ventilation with natural excitation, mechanical ventilation.

In Occupation History Pages section the editorial staff offers an article dedicated to individual apartment ventilation system. The material was published in 1938 in the third edition of Heating and ventilation magazine.

6/2015

New Possibilities in Promotion of the Business of NP AVOK Members

V. V. Potapov, NP AVOK Executive Director

Keywords: AVOK, committee, catalogue

For many years NP AVOK worked on promotion of sustainable development of production, commercial and scientific-educational activities of its members. In the current situation in Russia NP AVOK is seeking new mechanisms for achievement of its objectives, and one of them creation of a single platform for cooperation between the partnership members and potential clients using the Business to Business model.

Business to Business (B2B) is a term that describes the type of informational and economic interaction between organizations aimed at improvement of the efficiency of companies work and mutually beneficial cooperation.

Recommendations on HVAC Design for Sports Facilities

Keywords: sports facility, ventilation, air conditioning, air exchange, heat load

Number of structures designed for sports events is relatively small. At the same time, such facilities often feature certain architectural peculiarities therefore their design often presents a design task pretty untypical and insufficiently elaborated. Large dimensions, accumulation of a large number of people in a limited space, diverse building use possibilities all these circumstances present difficulties for designers.

Architects opinion on Sustainable Development and Green Construction

Keywords: sustainable development, green construction, ecosystem, ecological balance, microclimate

Today the global building industry is demonstrating an unbelievable interest in design and construction of green buildings. The technical components of the green buildings design and construction is based on building rating systems that view a building as a green construction object. Beyond that there is individual understanding and attitude of an architect, as a philosopher and an ideologist, towards creation of green facilities. The article offers opinions of some architects on green construction and the role of sustainability in the project.

Air Duct Density Classes

V. V. Ustinov, LLC Lindab Executive Director

Keywords: air duct, density class, air duct airtightness class, air leak, pressure

The modern ventilation system quality standards put more and more significance in such parameters as airtightness of air ducts.

Smoking Zone in a lobby. Example project

Keywords: smoking zone, ventilation, concentration of tobacco smoke, air quality

The article offers the organization of smoking zones in the lobby on the example of the project, implemented at the Faculty of Architecture at Delft University of Technology.

A smoking zone was established in the lobby of the premises of Building Engineering at the technical university in Delft. Apart from being an area for smokers, this is also used as a test room for research activities.

Regulation of Annual Electricity Consumption in Residential Buildings including for common needs

V. I. Livchak, Candidate of Engineering

Keywords: specific annual electricity consumption, in-apartment electricity consumption, common-building consumption, apartment building, lighting load

Regulatory documents in our country lack technically justified norms of specific annual electricity consumption in buildings. And without that it is not possible to compare the actual electricity consumption with regulated and expected, and to evaluate the energy efficiency of buildings based on the primary energy consumption, as it is done in most European and Northern American countries.

Efficient Level of Thermal Protection of Buildings Considering the Life Cycle Cost

G. P. Vasilyev, Doctor of Engineering, Head of the Center of Energy Conservation and Efficient Use of Nontraditional Energy Sources in Building Complex GUP NIIMosstroy, Research Coordinator of the Group of Innovation Companies (GIC) INSOLAR

V. A. Lichman, Candidate of Physics and Mathematics, GUP NIIMosstroy

Keywords: life cycle cost, net discounted income, energy efficiency, thermal protection, environmental damages, energy supply, building envelope, energy conservation

The article offers a method of evaluation of economic feasibility of the level of thermal protection of building envelope based on evaluation of its life cycle cost. The method is based on the concept of net discounted income (NDI) from changes in the thermal protection of the building envelope. The article offers a possible scenario for improvement of the energy efficiency of buildings in Moscow presuming that energy savings from improvement of the energy efficiency of utility systems in residential buildings will be twice higher than the economy of funds from improvement of the thermal protection of the building envelope.

Economic Optimization of Buildings Thermal Protection

Keywords: thermal protection of buildings, heat insulation thickness, thermal energy, energy conservation

AVOK magazine No. 3, 2015, published article by I.N. Kovalev Economic justification of thermal protection of buildings, dedicated to the question of feasibility of improving the thermal protection of buildings and selection of thermal insulation thickness. Considering the importance of questions raised in the article, the editorial staff believed it is necessary to publish a review of this article.

On Regulatory Legal Acts that Govern Fire and Explosion Safety of Rooms and Buildings used for Construction of Gas Distribution and Gas Consumption Networks

I. S. Taubkin, Candidate of Engineering, Chief Expert on Fires and Explosions of the Russian Federation Center of Forensic Investigations under the Ministry of Justice of Russia

Keywords: room, fire resistance limit; explosion, gas, regulating devices, pressure, ventilation, regulatory documents, fire and explosion safety

The article offers a critical analysis of the main provisions of regulatory documents on fire and explosion safety of rooms and buildings used for placement of technological equipment for gas pressure regulation and maintaining it within the set parameters in gas networks.

Displacement Ventilation in Non-production Buildings

Keywords: air handling unity, air quality, supply air, excess heat

Displacement ventilation systems continue interesting the industry specialists in our country and abroad. The principle of a displacement system operation based on air supply to the serviced area and removal of air and hot gases at the ceiling level is well known and is being used for hundreds of years in industrial facilities, mainly in heavy industry plants.

7/2015

25th Anniversary AVOK. Our Values

Yu. A. Tabunschikov, NP AVOK President

Keywords: AVOK, association, REHVA, ASHRAE, conference, webinar, workshop

In the autumn of this year AVOK will celebrate its 25th anniversary. Read about the history of the organizations growth in this article.

AVACES Association of Ventilation and Air Conditioning Equipment Specialists

F. V. Tokarev, Chairman of the Association of Ventilation and Air Conditioning Equipment Specialists (AVACES)

Keywords: association, association task, membership

On the initiative of TC 061 Ventilation and Air Conditioning and a group of leading industry specialists a decision was made in the of 2014 to create an association that brings together organizations and specialists involved in development, production and operation of ventilation and air conditioning equipment to improve its energy efficiency. In March of 2015 the Ministry of Justice RF has registered the Association of Ventilation and Air Conditioning Equipment Specialists (AVACES).

Common Errors in the Thermal Protection and Energy Efficiency of Buildings Part of Design Documents

A. D. Zabegin, Head of the Buildings Energy Efficiency Sector of Moscow State Expertise, Government Expert Engineer

Keywords: expert evaluation, design documents, thermal protection of buildings, building energy efficiency indicators, energy efficiency category

The article looks at the most common mistakes made in the design documents in the part of thermal protection and energy efficiency indicators of buildings identified during the state expert evaluation stage.

Selection of Air Distribution Schemes inside Rooms

Keywords: air exchange, terminal unit, ventilation, supply grate, ceiling panels, diffuser

Selection of air distribution schemes affects the design solutions, energy and materials intensity of use in a ventilation system, possibility of effective achievement of regulated air parameters in working areas inside rooms.

How do you supply air inside to avoid draughts and dead-air areas, ensure uniform distribution of air temperature in a working (serviced) area, prevent overheating or overcooling of rooms, pollution of clean areas with hazardous emissions from the dirty ones? All these questions have to be considered in selection of an air exchange scheme and type of terminal units that directly supply air inside a room. At the end run, air distribution defines the consumer effect of a ventilation and air conditioning system operation.

Impact of Indoor Climate on Work Efficiency

By David P. Wyon, Ph.D., Member ASHRAE

Pawel Wargocki, Ph.D., Member ASHRAE

Keywords: indoor climate, work performance, 2, thermal comfort, sick building syndrome

AVOK magazine has published a number of articles dedicated to research of the indoor climates impact on work efficiency and human health. To expand this topic the editors publish an article by specialists with extensive experience in impact of the thermal comfort and indoor air quality on work efficiency of people. After a significant number of researches the authors have determined the main mechanisms involved in impact of the indoor climate parameters on the physical condition and efficiency of mental performance of people. The article presents answers to the most common questions.

Ensuring Sustainable Future through Reconstruction of the Past. Experience from Renovation of ASHRAE Headquarters

Michael R. Vaughn, P.E., Member Ashrae

Keywords: reconstruction, ventilation system, centralized control, air conditioning system, air quality, thermal comfort

Five years have passed since renovation of the ASHRAE headquarters by the time this article was written. Now it is time to look back and analyze the renovation process to understand, which solutions have proven themselves and what mistakes were made. This article is a short summary of the renovation results.

Complex Federation Tower. Ventilation, Air-conditioning and Cooling Systems of Tower "East"

I I. N. Smirnova, General Director of LLC Design Bureau Rimax

N. V. Shilkin, Candidate of Engineering, Professor, Moscow Architecture Institute

M. N. Efremov, Engineer, NP AVOK

Keywords: high-rise complex, ventilation, air conditioning, cold supply

High-Rise Complex Federation Tower is a unique structure, claiming the title of the highest building not only in Russia, but in Europe as well. A series of articles will discuss specifics of engineering solutions used in the complex.

On Regulatory Legal Acts that Govern Fire and Explosion Safety of Rooms and Buildings used for Construction of Gas Distribution and Gas Consumption Networks

I. S. Taubkin, Candidate of Engineering, Chief Expert on Fires and Explosions of the Russian Federation Center of Forensic Investigations under the Ministry of Justice of Russia

Keywords: room, fire resistance limit; explosion, gas, regulating devices, pressure, ventilation, regulatory documents, fire and explosion safety

The article offers a critical analysis of the main provisions of regulatory documents on fire and explosion safety of rooms and buildings used for placement of technological equipment for gas pressure regulation and maintaining it within the set parameters in gas networks.

Conference and Exhibition Energy Efficient Moscow Region

Keywords: AVOK, conference

Conference and Exhibition Energy Efficient Moscow Region took place in Krasnogorsk on 2324 September of this year the first regional forum dedicated to demonstration of energy efficient technologies and projects, discussion of priority methods of energy consumption optimization and attraction of investments in energy conservation.

REHVA General Assembly

Keywords: AVOK, REHVA, Cold Climate HVAC, conference

In this magazine issue we recall an event of European significance that took place on May 18-19, 2006, in Moscow 49th General Assembly of the Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Associations (REHVA), which hosted the V International Conference Cold Climate HVAC. NP AVOK was the organizer of this event.

8/2015

Football Stadiums Rating System for FIFA World Cup 2018 in Russia

Yu.A. Tabunschikov, NP ABOK President

Keywords: AVOK, rating system, football stadium

FIFA has approved the Football Stadiums Rating Standard for FIFA World Cup 2018 in Russia developed by NP ABOK on order of the Ministry of Nature of Russia. The standard was developed with participation of Russia-2018 FIFA organizing committee, LLC NPO TERMEK, Moscow Architectural Institute (State Academy), Central Scientific Research and Experimental Design Institute for Industrial Buildings and Structures (CNIIPromzdaniy).

The standard was developed in line with FIFA requirements for assessment of newly designed, built and reconstructed FIFA World Cup 2018 stadiums for conformance to the sustainable development principles in Russia.

Selection of Air Distribution Patters inside Buildings

Keywords: air terminal unit, slot diffuser, air flowrate, swirl diffuser, jet diffuser, floor diffuser

The second part of the article looks at air terminal units for mixing ventilation. You can find the first part of the article in ABOK magazine No. 7, 2015.

Use of mechanical ventilation systems is residential buildings

Keywords: natural exhaust ventilation, mechanical ventilation system, exhaust air heat recuperation, air exchange

There are numerous known deficiencies in natural exhaust ventilation systems installed in mass-development residential buildings. In the recent years these deficiencies became more prominent as the air-tightness of buildings has improved, there are more synthetic finishing materials used and the requirements for the inside air quality became more stringent.

In this magazine issue the editorial staff publishes opinions of foreign and national specialists on feasibility of using mechanical ventilation systems in residential buildings.

Air Handling Units for Residential Buildings. European Certification Program Sylvain Courtey, Head of the Ventilation Department, Eurovent Certita Certification Delfine Salvador, Project Engineer, Eurovent Certita Certification

Keywords: air handling unit, ventilation system, air tightness of equipment, air flowrate, recuperation of exhaust air heat, energy efficiency

In 2014 Eurovent Certita Certification has published the first all-European certification program for residential air handling units (Residential Air Handling Units RAHU). Six leading European manufacturers have participated in development of the certification program. The main documents regulating the certification process became the certification instruction and evaluation standard. The program is harmonized with the main EU documents on energy efficiency regulation.

On Linear (socialistic planned) and Non-linear (market) Economy Modelling: What are the Differences, How Significant are They and What are the Risks

I. N. Kovalev, Candidate of Engineering

Keywords: investment, production costs, operating costs, payback period, net income

High energy intensity of the domestic product in the country is not only economically detrimental, but also poses a threat to safety of the society, its living activities. The problem can be resolved by a great extent by reducing the DGP energy intensity by approximately 40% by 2020. This presumes huge investments in the energy conservation facilities, mainly from the budget funds (state capital investments). Investments of the business in energy conservation play a positive role, but this sector lack strict quantitative regulations, therefore entrepreneurship, stimulated only by income, does not play a decisive role in the process.

The article discusses direct state investments that have significant calculation-methodic differences compared to the business investments.

Heat Pump Heating and Cooling Systems Design Experience

Keywords: heat pump systems, specific energy consumption, hybrid heat pump system, ground heat exchanger

The analysis of possible field of application of the technologies using non-conventional renewable energy sources shows that the most prospective area of their application in Russia is buildings life-support systems. And one of the most efficient areas for implementation of these technologies in the national building practice is use of heating heat pump systems that use the Earths surface ground layer potential as the heat source.

V.F. Gornov, Director of the Design Department of OJSC Insolar-Invest shares the experience in design of such systems.

Technical Assets Management

Henning Balck, Professor, Balck + Partner / IPS Institute of Design Methods and Service Technologies, Heidelberg, Germany

Keywords: maintenance and repair, investments, life cycle of assets, service life, strategic components method

Increasing age of building equipment requires higher spending on maintenance and repairs (hereinafter MaR) and, at the same time, limits the timeframe for the capital investments. The main costs component is the constantly growing number of repairs, difficultly forecasted and becoming more complicated modernization and rehabilitation of buildings infrastructure. We need new strategies that hold back the growth of such costs. This is possible through integration of MaR methods and energy efficiency, taking into consideration the life cycle of assets. In this magazine issue the editorial publishes an article dedicated to a comprehensive analysis of this issue. Translation and editing, as well as comments to this materials is provided by buildings automation expert V.V. Ilyin (LLC Loy & Hutz Rus).

Ensuring Sustainable Future through Reconstruction of the Past. Experience from Renovation of ASHRAE Headquarters

Michael R. Vaughn, Member Ashrae

Keywords: reconstruction, ventilation system, centralized control, air conditioning system, air quality, thermal comfort

Five years have passed since renovation of the ASHRAE headquarters by the time this article was written. Now it is time to look back and analyze the renovation process to understand, which solutions have proven themselves and what mistakes were made. This article is a short summary of the renovation results.

Moscow Energy Efficient City

Keywords: ABOK, conference, forum, exhibition

XXXII Conference and Exhibition Moscow Energy Efficient City took place in Moscow, bringing together extensive communication capabilities of a conference and demo exhibition space.

AVOK Celebrates its 25th Anniversary

Keywords: ABOK, anniversary

On 29 October NP ABOK has celebrated its anniversary 25 years since its creation.

AVOK members include national and foreign industry specialists and over 300 organizations collective members. ABOK today its 32 Moscow Energy Efficient City Conferences and Exhibitions; over 100 conferences and seminars, over 200 master classes and webinars; over 70 standards and recommendations; 33 publications in the ABOK Technical Library series; magazines ABOK, Energy Conservation, Plumbing, High-tech Buildings e-magazine, online calculations for design, awards and professional training, and, of course, extensive international activities.

High-Rise Construction Forum

Keywords: ABOK, conference, high-rise construction, congress

2nd International Forum on High-Rise Construction took place in Yekaterinburg in the new International Exhibition Center Yekaterinburg-Expo. 100+ Russia Forum is a professional international congress and exhibition dedicated to design, construction, financing and operation of high-rise and unique structures of any purpose. NP ABOK participates in the steering committee of the Forum and keeps regular contacts with the event organizers.


2014

1/2014

Energy-Efficient Buildings and Innovative Engineering Systems

Yu.A. Tabunschikov, President of the not-for-profit partnership NP ABOK

Key words: nergy efficiency, heat loss, exhaust air heat recovery, thermal protection of building, specific heat consumption

Reduction of energy consumption in the construction industry primarily in the housing and utilities sector is one of the priorities designed to increase the energy and environmental efficiency of the Russian economy. The article addresses the basic engineering and construction solutions to meet the challenge.

In 2008 the presidential decree No 889 set the task to reduce the energy intensity of GDP by at least 40% by 2020 compared to 2007. In 2011, the decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No 18 established that by 2020 the specific annual heat and ventilation consumption should be reduced by 40%. However until the present we are not familiar with any extensive research to reach the presidents and governments targets in the design, renovation and major repairs of buildings. The study presents engineering and construction solutions to not only achieve the targets but also surpass them.

Engineering Systems of Low-Rise Buildings.

Part 1. Heat Supply

Key words: heating, single-loop boiler, double-boiler, expansion tank, circulating pump

Housing construction is an attractive area of investment. A substantial portion of the residential development accounts for low-rise houses. Modern engineering technologies allow for convenient and comfortable living in private houses. The first part of the article focuses on heating such houses.

Constant Performance of the Natural Ventilation Systems of Apartment Buildings

G.Ya. Volov, PhD in Technical Sciences, of the Double Liability Company Energovent (Minsk)

Key words: natural ventilation, mathematical simulation, air exchange

It is well known that in recent years due to new requirements for the external enclosure of a building the stability of natural ventilation has decreased. The article presents a mathematical model for the natural ventilation system of a 9-story apartment building section and reviews the major cases of loss of stability of the system.

Energy and Economic Evaluation of the Systems for Atmospheric and Mechanical Cooling for Air-Conditioned Offices

E.G. Malyavina, Professor, PhD in Technical Sciences, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE or MGSU in the Russian abbreviation)

A.A. Frolova, MGSU

A.S. Silaev, MGSU

Key words: refrigerating machine, dry cooler, electricity, capital expenditures, operating costs, total discounted costs

The purpose of the article is to compare the energy and economic performances of the cooling systems in different typical sizes and with the transition from atmospheric cooling to the mechanical cooling at different outdoor temperatures.

Effect of External Aerodynamics on the Aeration Ventilation in Orthodox Churches

A.G. Kochev, D.Sc. in Engineering, Professor, Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU)

M.M. Sokolov, Professor, Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU),

Key words: aerodynamic factor, building aeration, air exchange

To study the heat and mass exchange on the inner surfaces of unique buildings and structures it is necessary to know the distribution of the velocity field and temperature on the inner surfaces of the building envelope, as well as the distribution of the aerodynamic coefficients on the outer surfaces of the enclosure structures.

Harmonisation of the Initial Data of the Russian Standards with the European Heat Consumption Calculation Standards Buildings

V.I. Livchak, PhD in Technical Sciences

Key words: heat load, internal heat gain, the total air-conditioned area

The volume of the internal heat gain from people, food preparation, lighting, use of electrical appliances and computers significantly impacts the energy consumed for heating and cooling of residential and public buildings. The article describes the data contained in ISO 13790:2008 to compensate for the unavailability in the Russian standards of specific values of the internal heat gain in public buildings depending on the purpose and mode of operation.

Green Building Rating Assessment

Yu.V. Miller, Engineer of the not-for-profit partnership NPABOK

Key words: building rating system, the quality of habitat, ecology, energy conservation, energy efficiency

The article gives an example of evaluation of a multi-storey residential building under Class A in accordancethe standard system of the National Association of Builders STO NOSTROY 2.35.4-2011 Green construction. Residential and public buildings. Rating system for evaluation of human environment sustainability.

Efficient Air Conditioning System of a Hospital

O.Ya. Kokorkin, D.Sc. in Engineering, Professor, Open Joint Research Institute of Sanitary Engineering

Key words: air conditioning, air distribution unit, supply air, heat emission, air exchange

The arrangements for air exchange, efficient ventilation systems and air conditioning, and proper operation of those systems directly have a direct effect on the quality of ambient air in health care institutions. The article provides an example of an effective air conditioning system operated for the cardiology department of the hospital No 3 War Veterans in Moscow.

Rossiya (Russia) Park: Concept Choice

On 20 December 2013 the second meeting of the expert board and the contest committee for the selection of the winner and finalists of the international competition for the design and financial model of the theme park Rossiya (Russia).

December Master Classes

The material focuses on two master classes of ABOK which took place in December. The first one, Design of Smoke Ventilation. Clarification of Existing Regulations was held in Moscow, and a master class on the energy saving features in the design was held in Tyumen.

Forgotten Names. Ivan Ustinovich Tsyganenko

A. Yu. Gusev, Associate Professor of the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE or in the Russian abbreviation MGSU)

A.E. Elkhovsky, Associate Professor of the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering

A.A. Malysheva, Assistant Professor of the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering

Key words: heating, ventilation, Ivan Ustinovich Tsyganenko

In November 2015 there will be the 100th anniversary of the death of Ivan Tsyganenko. This material is dedicated to the memory of the Russian scientist.

2/2014

Modern Heat Supply in Russia: Systematic Approach and Proper Planning

V. G. Semenov, President of NP Rossiyskoye teplosnabzheniye

Keywords: heat supply, energy conservation, heat supply arrangement, heat transfer media, tariff

Interview with President of NP Rossiyskoye teplosnabzheniye Victor Germanovich Semenov. In the recent years law No. 190-FZ On heat supply dd. 27 July 2010 has significantly influenced the status of legal basis of economic relations in thermal energy production, transmission and consumption, as well as creation, functioning and development of the heat supply systems. Specialists of noncommercial partnership Rossiyskoye teplosnabzheniye took an active part in development of this law.

Engineering Systems of Low-Rise Buildings. Part 2. Climate control systems

A. L. Naumov, Vice President of NP AVOK, General Director of LLC NPO Termtek

Keywords: convector, radiator, floor heating system, two-pipe heating system, supply ventilation system, mechanical exhaust ventilation

The second part of the article discusses heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems of individual homes that ensure comfortable living.

Air Distribution in Residential and Public Buildings

M. N. Efremov, engineer, NP AVOK

Keywords: air change, air distributor, ventilation, mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation, diffuser

Air mobility is one of the most important parameters affecting the humans wellbeing. The article presents examples of various air flow schemes inside rooms that are useful for understanding of the ventilation processes.

Control of Thermoactive Building Floor Heating and Cooling Systems

M. M. Brodach, Candidate of Engineering, Professor, Moscow Architecture Institute

Keywords: thermoactive floor heating and cooling systems, thermoactive floor, temperature sensor, mathematical model of the room thermal mode

In the recent decades the global construction industry is experiencing a stable tendency to use massive concrete structures of the building itself for heating and cooling. The article presents various control methods for thermoactive floor heating and cooling systems.

Calculation of Variable Hydraulic Working Mode of Water Heating System

L. M. Mahov, Professor, Candidate of Engineering, FBGOU VPO MGSU

S. M. Usikov, FBGOU VPO MGSU

Keywords: heating system, hydraulic calculation, heat transfer media, heat losses, heat delivery of heating appliances

The article looks at the problems with the modern approach to calculation and selection of the equipment for the building two-pipe water heating system using an ordinary room with a heating appliance installed as an example.

Power and economic assessment of systems to free and machine cooling for conditioned office rooms

E. G. Malyavina, Professor, Candidate of Engineering, FBGOU VPO MGSU

A. A. Frolova, FBGOU VPO MGSU

A. S. Silaev, FBGOU VPO MGSU

Keywords: refrigerating machine, dry cooler, electricity, capital expenditures, operating costs, total discounted costs

The second part of the article gives comparison of economic indicators of various cooling plant options.

Information Security and Overvoltage Protection in BACnet networks

Hans R. Kranz, VDI member

Keywords: networks security, BACnet, authorization, key, automatic building management system

Strict requirements are set for the reliability of equipment installed inside a building, including for network security and overvoltage protection. This means that each construction project requires development of a complex Automatic Building Management System (ABMS) concept. In the proposed material the author discusses the problems with ensuring protection of BACnet networks.

Protection of the Environment from HVAC Systems Equipment Noise Impact

V.P. Gusev, Head of the laboratory of Scientific Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences

Keywords: acoustic calculations, noise absorption, air noise, aerodynamic noise, structural noise

In spite of the importance of acoustic calculations, until recently there really were no documents suitable for their performance. This gap was eliminated at the end of the last year with publication of guide Noise absorption calculation and design for ventilation, air conditioning and air heating systems. The article addresses the main points of this publication.

Aron Mihailovich Shklover. Biographical Sketch

Keywords: theory explaining building heat transfer, theory heat resistance, periodic thermal impact.

The article is dedicated to Aron Mihailovich Shklover author of the theory explaining building heat transfer and heat resistance under periodic thermal impact.

3/2014

Road Map of Green construction in Russia: Problems and Growth Perspectives

Yu. A. Tabunschikov, Associate Member of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Science, President of NP AVOK

Keywords: green construction, rating system, road map, energy efficiency, ecology

Green construction is the most important direction of the global construction industry and is a systematic extension of energy efficient and environmental friendly buildings. Now is the time to combine efforts of organizations interested in construction of green buildings and to develop the road map of green construction in Russia.

Atrium HVAC Systems

M. M. Brodach, Candidate of Engineering, Professor, Moscow Architecture Institute

M. N. Efremov, engineer, NP AVOK

Keywords: atrium, stratification, HVAC systems air quality, air distribution

Atriums offer a very popular architectural concept for construction and reconstruction of buildings. They give the feeling of free space and light, are the ideal place for meetings, rest, organization of service enterprises, exhibition spaces and therefore give the building additional functional qualities. All this imposes special requirements on the atrium climate control systems.

Specifics of Restroom Exhaust Systems Design for Bathrooms in Public Buildings

N. A. Shonina, Senior Lecturer at the Moscow Architecture Institute

Keywords: exhaust ventilation, bathroom, supply and exhaust stimulating ventilation, exhaust grille, air duct

From the first look it seems, that designing such a simple system as exhaust ventilation of restrooms in public buildings should not pose any difficulties. However there is a number of practical features that should be taken into account during design.

Legionella: Safety Measures for Design and Operation of Building Utility System

M. N. Efremov, Engineer, NP AVOK

Keywords: Legionella, bacterial contamination, air conditioning system, hot water supply, evaporative cooling tower

Problems related to possibility of occurrence and dissemination of Legionella require attention of designers and engineers on all stages of the building design, construction and operation. The threat comes from the utility systems and networks inside the building, as well as outside the building.

Efficiency of Air heat Pumps in the Conditions of Perm Kray

A. A. Grishkov, Candidate of Engineering, Assistant Professor FGBOU VPO Perm National Research Polytechnic University

Keywords: heat pump, bivalent temperature, energy consumption, efficiency, pay-back period

The article gives assessment of energy and economic efficiency of heat supply systems based on heat pumps that use the heat of atmospheric air. Recommendations are provided on selection of bivalent temperature during the design of heat pump system.

Efficient Use of Waste Heat in industrial Enterprises

A. S. Rubtsov, General Director of LLC Vent-Design

Keywords: recuperation of waste heat from exhaust air, supply air, rotor recuperator

Technological processes in many enterprises are accompanied by large heat emissions. Recuperation of waste heat from the exhaust air allow for significant reduction or even elimination of costs on heating of outside supply air, reducing the cost of production and consumption of energy resources by the enterprise. This article describes application of this technology using the production building of a pharmaceutical company as an example.

Mathematical Model of Smoke Duct Temperature Mode

A. B. Mironov, Candidate of Engineering, Technical Director at CJSC Centrgasservice

M. Yu. Elagin, Doctor of Engineering, Professor, Tula State University

Keywords: smoke duct, chimney, thermo-technical calculation, smoke gases, heat generating plant

Smoke chimneys designed for extraction of gases away from heat-generating plant and their dilution in the atmosphere are considered complex specialized engineering facilities. Reliability, strength and long service life of these structures influences uninterrupted operation of equipment and plants connected to them, provision of heat for industrial facilities, as well as residential buildings. The article offers a mathematical model of the temperature mode that has direct influence on the reliability of smoke chimney.

Assessment of Noise Impact on the Environment from Ventilation Equipment installed in Open Spaces

V. P. Gusev, Scientific Research Institute of Building Physics of RAASN

V. I. Ledenev, Tambov State Technical University

Keywords: noise, acoustic calculations, ventilation equipment, linear noise source, flat noise source

Optimal protection from ventilation equipment noise from the acoustics and economy perspective is not possible without sufficiently precise acoustic calculations. The article offers methods that take into consideration equipment position, character, conditions of noise radiation and distribution into the environment.

Information Security and Overvoltage Protection in BACnet networks

Hans R. Kranz, VDI member

Keywords: electromagnetic compatibility, interference, EMC-protection, interference resistance, arrester

The second part of the article looks into the problems of electromagnetic compatibility and protection of the building automation system components from overvoltage.

About Switching to Two-level Higher Education System in Heat, Gas and Water Supply

L.M. Mahov, Candidate of Engineering, Heating and Ventilation Department Professor, FGBOU VPO MGSU

O.D. Samarin, Candidate of Engineering, Assistance Professor, FGBOU VPO MGSU

Keywords: education standard, bachelors degree, masters degree program, two-level higher education system

Starting with 2011 universities in the Russian Federation are enrolling students for bachelors and masters degree programs pursuant to the Federal State Education Standard of the 3rd generation (FGOS-3). About three years have passed since that time and, therefore, in the next, 2015th year we are expecting graduation of first FGOS-2 bachelors. This article is dedicated to the results of new standard application and experience with its implementation.

4/2014

New HVAC Century-Problems and Perspectives

Dott. Ing. Alessandro Sandelewski, C.Eng, FCIBSE, MASHRAE, LEED GA, ASC Engineering Srl, Milan

Keywords: green building, rating estimation, sustainability in building construction, heat pump, renewable energy

This paper addresses the key issues facing the HVAC designer today. Building services must not only be energy efficient, but also sustainable; they must respect the environment and use renewable energy as much as possible. After an overview of the current codes and bye-laws, some modern system solutions are briefly examined, with their advantages and disadvantages. Finally the issue of sustainability is considered, with a brief mention of the most currently used certification protocols.

Energy Efficient Buildings Complex Solution for Heating, Ventilation and Hot Water Systems

V. L. Granovskiy, Candidate of Engineering, Technical Director LLC Danfoss

Keywords: energy efficiency, vertical single-pipe heating system, vertical double-pipe heating system, horizontal heating system, recuperation of exhaust air heat

The practice of design, construction and reconstruction of energy efficient buildings indicates a certain accent on the activities to improve the building thermal protection without the proper attention to the energy conservation potential that utility systems have.

The article uses a middle segment building with traditional technical solutions as an example to evaluate the energy conservation potential of the building utility systems.

Features of the National Operation

Key words: building operation, dispatch control, automation system, building utility systems

Building life cycle equal to dozens, and sometimes hundreds of years. Design, construction, installation of utility systems takes months or years, while operation continues for the entire building service life, and its quality has great impact on the service life duration and quality of the building itself and its users.

The magazines editorial staff interviewed expert in operation of buildings and houses, candidate of Engineering, Alexander Vasilyevich Golovachev.

New Regulatory Documents NOSTROY

A. N. Kolubkov, Vice President NP AVOK, Director PPF AK

Keywords: code of rules, design, high-rise building, heat supply system, ventilation system, air conditioning system

The article discusses the main provisions of interstate code of rules "Utility systems of high-rise buildings which is currently being prepared for publication. The main attention in this document is given to design of building heat supply, heating, ventilation, air conditioning and cooling systems.

Thermal Comfort with Radiant Panel Heating

N. A. Shonina, Engineer, Senior Lecturer in the Moscow Architecture Institute

Keywords: radiant heating and cooling system, thermal comfort, climatic beams, heat losses, radiant heat exchange, convectional heat exchange

Radiant heating and cooling systems have always drawn attention of specialists, however they gained special popularity in the last years due to the energy saving and inside microclimate quality improvement problems. Available literature does not contain sufficient amount of primary source data on requirements for thermal comfort when using radiant heating and cooling systems. And these are the requirements that the article is dedicated to.

Climate Equipment in Russia: trends and forecasts

Keywords: climate equipment, VRE system, chiller, fancoil

Interview with an independent expert, Director of Litvinchuk Marketing company Georgiy Gannadyevich Litvinchuk is dedicated to the current situation in the Russian climate equipment market.

National Green Technologies Implementation Strategy

Keywords: green construction, ecology, energy conservation

On 2 April 2014 the Committee on Housing Policy and Utility Services of the State Duma held a round table on "Preparation of the project National Strategy for Implementation Energy resources and Environmentally Friendly (green) Technologies and Productions in Construction and Housing and Utilities Complex

How to Preserve Priceless Old Buildings

V. A. Brosalin, Candidate of Engineering, Associate professor in Saint-Petersburg Higher Military Engineering and Construction School

V. D. Korkin, Candidate of Engineering, Associate professor in Saint-Petersburg Institute of Arts, Sculpture and Architecture of I.E. Repin.

Keywords: building reconstruction, microclimate, temperature and moisture conditions, microclimate parameters

The authors are discussing specifics of air conditioning systems design in ancient buildings and structures being reconstructed, temperature and moisture conditions in such buildings and preferable principles of microclimate stabilization.

REHVA 58th General Assembly

Keywords: REHVA, general assembly, main areas of activities

Annual general assembly of REHVA took place on 28-30 April 2014 in Dusseldorf (Germany). Union of German engineers VDI was the organizer or the event.

April Events of AVOK

Keywords: AVOK, conference, master-class

Two NP AVOK conferences took place in April of this year in Moscow and Saint-Petersburg: XVI Conference Efficient heating, ventilation, air conditioning and heat supply systems and II AVOK Educational Conference and Exhibition Experience in design, technical solutions and equipment of energy efficient building utility systems.

The conferences were accompanied by AVOK master-classes.

5/2014

Green Standards for Sport Arenas

A. L. Naumov, Vice President NP AVOK, General Director OOO NPO TERMEK

Keywords: green construction, rating system, sport facility, demand controlled ventilation, energy content, air exchange

Without exaggerating, one can say that green construction became the leading trend in the economy of technically developed countries. Green standards were developed as indicators of the quality of life, sustainability of the living environment, environment protection, protection and preservation of nature for todays and future generations. An important role in convergence of the green construction concepts plaid the sports. Sports facilities fall in the category of public buildings and structures but have a number of significant unique features that have found their reflection in the green standards. The article describes this situation in details.

Innovative Technologies at Olympic Infrastructure Facilities

Keywords: NP AVOK, congress-tour

Sightseeing congress-tour Innovative Technologies at Olympic Infrastructure Facilities took place in Sochi on 2528 June 2014. The tour included demonstrations of the engineering solutions implemented in the facilities built for the XXII Winter Olympics and XI Paralympic Games in Sochi.

Best National and Foreign Energy Efficient Engineering Systems

A. L. Naumov, Candidate of Engineering, General Director OOO NPO TERMEK

D. V. Kapko, Leading Engineer at OOO NPO TERMEK

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy efficiency category, energy efficiency value assessment criteria

Energy efficient building is a product of joint efforts of architects, designers and engineers that brings together the optimal form and orientation of buildings with high level of thermal protection of the building envelope and energy saving engineering systems with energy generation elements. Engineering systems, in turn, are based on energy efficient engineering equipment.

A proposal was made in USA to publish annual Top-10 10 most energy efficient engineering technologies that are recommended for consideration in the priority order during design and construction of buildings. This article discusses similar national recommendations developed by the specialists from OOO NPO TERMEK.

Features of the National Operation

Key words: building operation, dispatch control, automation system, building utility systems

Building life cycle equal to dozens, and sometimes hundreds of years. Design, construction, installation of utility systems takes months or years, while operation continues for the entire building service life, and its quality has great impact on the service life duration and quality of the building itself and its users.

The magazines editorial staff interviewed expert in operation of buildings and houses, candidate of Engineering, Alexander Vasilyevich Golovachev.

Application of Clean Room Technology in surgery room and semiconductors production rooms

A. P. Borisoglebskaya, Assistant Professor and Moscow State Civil Engineer

Keywords: clean room, hospital acquired infection, cleanliness category, laminar flow, air distributor

This article analyzes studies of air conditions in clean rooms. A comparison is made of the conditions of provision and monitoring air environment in medical and industrial clean rooms. A hospital surgery room and a semiconductors production clean room were taken as a specific example for investigation of air and microbiological modes.

Energy Saving Ventilation Systems in Industrial Buildings

O. Ya. Kokorin, Doctor of Engineering, Professor at Moscow State Civil University

S. V. Naberezhnev, Head of the Design Group

Keywords: ventilation system, exhaust air heat recuperation, recuperator, heat exchanger, displacement ventilation

Thermal energy consumption in industrial buildings is dozens of times higher than in residential and public buildings or the identical size. The article presents the principal system that uses heat from the treated air in the process cycle and allows for reduction of the thermal energy consumption for supply air preheating by up to 100%.

Sun Shading Devices: European and Russian Regulatory Practices

A. V. Spiridonov, Candidate of Engineering, Head of Laboratory of the Scientific Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Science

I. L. Shubin, Doctor of Engineering, Director of the Scientific Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Science

V. I. Rimshin, Doctor of Engineering, Director of the Institute of Housing and Community Complex of the Moscow State Civil University

S. A. Semin, Graduate Student at the Institute of Housing and Community Complex of the Moscow State Civil University

Keywords: sun shading device, thermal comfort, heat gains, building thermal balance

One of the most common methods of providing thermal and visual comfort inside buildings is use of various sun shading devices that vary in installation locations, orientation of fins, control methods, materials used and other functional parameters. According to the article authors, wide-scale implementation of sun shading devices in our country requires, first of all, development of regulatory documents on application of such devices in the construction.

Improvement of Thermal Comfort in Production Buildings of Locomotive Depots

N. G. Volkova, Candidate of Engineering, Scientific Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Science

Keywords: radiant heating, electrical panels, thermal comfort, locomotive depot, workplaces

The article presents the results of studies in improvement of the thermal comfort of workplaces in a locomotive depot using electrical panel heaters.

Polypropylene Pipes. Overview of the Key Parameters of Conformity to GOST 521342003

A.N. Goncharik, Technical Specialist at Ego Engineering company

Keywords: polypropylene pipes, fitting, labeling, acceptance tests

Today polypropylene pipes in the Russian market are represented by a huge number of national and foreign manufacturers. The main goal of the article is to draw the specialists attention to the main provisions of production and testing of polypropylene pipes regulated by standards GOST R 521342003 Pressure pipes made of thermoplastic and connection elements for them for water supply and heating systems. General specifications. Compliance with this standard is mandatory.

Energy service operations and energy inspections. Problems and solutions

Keywords: energy service, energy audit, conference, NP AVOK

Conference dedicated to the problems in the energy service operations took place in May 2014. The conference covered mechanisms of implementation of the energy service contracts.

6/2014

Searching for the Truth

Yu. A. Tabunschikov, Professor, Doctor of Engineering, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences

Keywords: thermal protection of buildings, building envelope resistance to heat transfer, heating period degree-days

Development of a method for regulation of the thermal protection of buildings is a difficult task that requires a systematic approach. The article discusses the problems encountered in the modern construction regulation.

Operation of the Building Utility Systems: Experts Opinion

Keywords: building operation, building operation service, operating costs

The issues related to operation of the utility systems of buildings and structures are getting more and more attention today. The quality of operation is one of the key factors defining the duration and quality of life of the building itself, as well as its users.

The editorial staff of the magazine offers its readers the opinion on this matter from the Chairman of the Board of Self-Regulating Organization ISZS-Montage, Merited Builder of Russia Alexey Vladimirovich Busahin.

About High Performance Factor of Fans and Efficiency of Ventilation Systems

V. G. Karadzhi, Candidate of Engineering, Consultant on Scientific Research for LLC INNOVENT

Yu. G. Moskovko, Candidate of Engineering, Consultant on Scientific Research for LLC INNOVENT

Keywords: maximum fan performance factor, fan performance factor in working mode, ventilation system, ventilation system efficiency

The article discusses the main factors that affect the aerodynamic efficiency of a ventilation system.

Application of Clean Room Technology in surgery room and semiconductors production rooms

A. P. Borisoglebskaya, Assistant Professor and Moscow State Civil Engineer

Keywords: clean room, hospital acquired infection, cleanliness category, laminar flow, air distributor

This article analyzes studies of air conditions in clean rooms. A comparison is made of the conditions of provision and monitoring air environment in medical and industrial clean rooms. A hospital surgery room and a semiconductors production clean room were taken as a specific example for investigation of air and microbiological modes.

Specifics of Heating and Ventilation Systems Design in Fitness Clubs

N. A. Shonina, Lecturer at Moscow Institute of Architecture

Keywords: ventilation system, heating system, heat emissions, moisture emissions, relative air humidity

More and more fitness-clubs are opening in the recent years. The article discusses the specifics of heating and ventilation systems design for fitness-clubs that ensure the microclimate parameters required for productive sport exercises.

Express Assessment of the Efficiency of Energy Saving Solutions

Keywords: express assessment, energy saving solution, thermal input

NP AVOK specialists have developed new software Express Assessment of the Efficiency of Energy Saving Solutions, that allows for prompt assessment of contribution from a specific energy saving solution in the reduction of heat consumption of your building. The detailed information is given in this article.

Influence of Radiant and Convective Air Cooling Systems on the Room Thermal Comfort

Risto Kosonen, Halton Oy and Aalto University

Panu Mustakallio, Halton Oy

Zhecho Bolashikov, Danish Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering

Kalin Kostov, Danish Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering

Sona Kolencikova, Danish Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering

Arsen K. Melikov, Danish Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering

Keywords: radiant cooling, convective cooling, room temperature, thermal comfort

When selecting an air cooling system a designer might have some concerns: can the given solution become the source of zones of discomfort in the room? In order to determine the influence of various cooling systems on the people inside a room the specialists of the Microclimate research center of the energy faculty of Danish Technical University carried out researches, and their results are presented in the publication.

Heat Pumps: Problems and Perspectives

Keywords: heat pump, monovalent heat pump, bivalent heat pump, heat transfer media, coefficient of transformation

Just recently a heat pump was viewed mainly as a unit or a system designed mainly for cooling of air, and also capable of supplying a certain heating capacity. In reality the purpose of this equipment is changing rapidly, and in many European countries the heat pump has switched its priorities: first of all heat demand, and only after that cooling. Moreover, heat pumps are already frequently being used only for heating.

Dome Stadiums: how it all began

Keywords: dome stadium, air conditioning system

The material gives brief description of the objectives that were achieved during the design and construction of the first in the world large-span roofed football stadium over 200 m in diameter Houston Astrodome, built in 1965.

Design of the Air Conditioning System for Dome Stadium

I. A. Naman, Professional Engineer, Honorable/Life Member of ASHRAE

Keywords: dome stadium, air conditioning system

The article offers methods applied in solving the problems related to air conditioning of roofed Houston Astrodome stadium.

7/2014

Why do office buildings overheat and what to do?

V. I. Livchak, Candidate of Engineering

Keywords: heat losses, heat gains, heat carrier temperature fluctuation schedule, heating system, ventilation system

Even during negative outside temperature many office buildings experience overheating of rooms and, thus, activation of the cooling systems. The article talks about the reasons and methods of avoiding such discomfort and enhancement of the energy efficiency of the office buildings ventilation and heating systems.

Smoke protection in questions and answers

Keywords: smoke protection, smoke exhaust ventilation, air overpressure, airlocks, smoke removal

In this section head of the fire resistant equipment and smoke protection unit of the fire resistant building structures and engineering equipment department of FGBU VNIIPO of the Ministry of Emergencies of Russia B.B. Kolchev answer to the specialists questions related to fire safety and engineering systems used for fire protection of the buildings.

Longitudinal reversal ventilation of enclosed and underground parking

A. P. Volkov, Candidate of Engineering, SC SZ Center AVOK

A. V. Sverdlov, General Director LLC Flakt Industrial & Building Systems

Keywords: longitudinal reversal ventilation, parking, smoke exhaust ventilation

The article presents the advantages of longitudinal ventilation system using air jets. Such system is a simple and energy efficient solution for modern enclosed and underground multilevel parking lots.

Building dust removal system

T. S. Shubina, Candidate of Engineering

N. A. Shonina, Senior lecturer at Moscow Institute of Architecture

Keywords: dust, centralized dust removal system, vacuum dust removal system, combined dust removal system, decentralized dust removal system

Organized room dust removal system helps in removing suspended dust from a room but does not get rid of the dust settled on the floor and objects inside the room.

Cleaning of a room from small garbage and dust can be done by either portable domestic vacuum cleaner or centrally with a vacuum dust removal system. The article discusses this system.

Thermal comfort, user behavior and energy efficiency

Keywords: thermal comfort, energy efficiency, adaptive approach

Eight Windsor Conference Calculation of the cost of comfort in the changing world took place in April 2014. One of the seminars of the conference included discussion of the questions related to the thermal comfort and user behavior, especially in buildings with cooling systems with low energy consumption. The material presents the results of this seminar.

Dependence of the inside air quality in school classrooms on the air exchange method

Jie Gao, International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark, School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xian University of Architecture and Technology, P.R.China

Pawel Wargocki, International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark

Yi Wang, School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xian University of Architecture and Technology, P.R.China

Keywords: school, classroom, ventilation system, air exchange, inside air temperature, carbon dioxide

The main goal of classroom ventilation is creation of the inside environment conditions reducing the probability of pupils health problems and minimizing the possible discomfort that negatively affects the educational process.

Specialists from the Danish Technical University conducted studies in one of the Danish schools to collect data about the efficiency of various ventilation methods and their impact on the inside air parameters in classrooms. Results of the inside air parameters measurement in classrooms equipped with various ventilation systems made during this study are presented in the article.

Compatibility of hew air-tight window blocks and the existing ventilation system. Problems and solutions

A. B. Nevzorova, Doctor of Engineering, Professor, UO Byelorussia State University of Transport (UO BelGUT)

A.V. Samsonov, OAO SMT 27

Keywords: energy efficiency, air-tight windows, ventilation, infiltration

Transition to air-tight windows in mass residential construction, just as replacement of old windows with new ones by the apartment owners, along with such positive factors as reduction of heat losses and improvement of the acoustic characteristics resulted in deterioration of the inside air conditions in rooms with traditional natural ventilation systems.

The article offers comparative analysis of different windows in thermo-technical characteristics performed in UO BelGUT. The analysis shows that failure to take into consideration changes in the air conditions of rooms after installation of new air-tight windows and available natural ventilation systems in old buildings is a reasons for violation of the air exchange and, as a result, of the inside microclimate.

Complex air treatment devices for gas pumping units

N.K. Galantsev, General Director CJSC Multifilter

Keywords: complex air treatment devices, gas pumping units, multistage air treatment, filter, dust collector

Gas pumping units, consisting of a compressor and gas turbine engine, are widely used for natural gas transportation along main lines. This article discusses the modern construction of complex air treatment device for gas pumping units of compressor plants.

Possibility to reduce contamination with hospital inspection inside surgery rooms

O.Ya. Kokorin, Doctor of Engineering, Professor, Moscow State Construction

N.V. Tovaras, Candidate of Engineering, General Director NPO HIMHOLODSERVICE

Keywords: hospital inspection, air exchange, supply air, recirculation air, air conditioning system

The article discusses air exchange organization inside hospitals that principally differ from the ones accepted in the international design practice and allowing for, in the authors opinions, reduction of spreading of hospital infections inside hospital wards and surgery rooms.

8/2014

Global trends in HVAC: experts opinion

Keywords: energy efficiency, microclimate quality, hybrid ventilation system, automation of utility systems, heat recuperation, decentralized energy supply system

Two day summit of EU leaders took place in October of 2014 where the climate and energy strategy until 2030 was accepted. The strategy calls for the following:

- increase in the share of renewable energy in the total EU energy consumption until 27% minimum by 2030 from the current approximately 14%;

- reduction of the carbon dioxide emissions in EU by 40% by 2030 as compared to 1990 level;

- increase in the energy efficiency by 27% compared to the current level.

Achievement of all these objectives mainly depends on development of the heating and ventilation equipment. The magazines editorial has contacted Russian and foreign experts and asked them to identify dominating areas of the HVAC industry that define the development vector in the industry.

Ventilation efficiency and age of air

Keywords: ventilation system, air exchange efficiency, air exchange rate

The foreign practice uses such parameter as age of air. Its value describes the time for replacement of air inside a room and serves as a criterion for assessment of the quality of the ventilation systems operation. The ventilation efficiency should by assessed during the early design stage, as a forecast, and during the operation stage.

Express-assessment of the efficiency of energy saving solutions

Keywords: express-assessment, energy saving, heat consumption

NP AVOK has developed Express-assessment of the efficiency of energy saving solutions methodology that allows for prompt evaluation of the contribution to reduction of heat consumption for heating, ventilation and cooling of a specific building of a wide range of energy saving solutions during the design period.

Energy use in buildings: analysis and evaluation methods

Shuqin Chen, Research Center of Green Building and New Energy, Shanghai, China

Hiroshi Yoshino, Department of architecture and building science, Tohoku University, Japan

Keywords: energy use, monitoring, data collection.

One of the most significant barriers for achieving the goal of substantially improving energy efficiency of buildings is the lack of knowledge about the factors determining the energy use.

Air quality in passenger terminals of airports

Keywords: pollutant, hazards, filtration, air exchange

International Association of Air Transport (IATA) is registering growth in the global passenger traffic. This will lead to problems in logistics and increase in the number of delayed flights. Therefore passengers will have to spend more time inside airports. This circumstance increases the requirements for the microclimate quality inside passenger terminals.

Decontamination of air in HVAC systems of public buildings

V. V. Yakimenko, Candidate of Physics and Mathematics, Technological Direction of NPO LIT

Keywords: decontamination of air, ultraviolet decontamination, sanitary and epidemiological safety, microbiological air pollution, recirculation of air

People spend most of their life inside buildings (60 to 85% of the total time according to some data). Therefore the questions related to ensuring sanitary and epidemiological safety play an important role in construction and reconstruction of buildings. Sickness rate that depends on the microbiological contamination of inside environment remains high today. Most of the pathogenic microorganisms are transmitted by air. This problem is especially acute in places with high density of people industrial and public buildings. One of the most promising technologies for ensuring safety of air environment by microbiological indicators for reduction of risks of spearing of infections accepted in the global and national practice is decontamination of air using ultraviolet radiation.

Efficient recuperation of heat in foundries

A. S. Rubtsov, General Director of LLC Vent-Design

Keywords: heat recuperation, general exchange ventilation system, rotor recuperator, I-d diagram, energy efficiency

Numerous industrial enterprises in Russia include a number of production facilities that consume significant energy resources, including heat and electricity. As a result, large consumption of energy resources leads to a significant contribution to the final cost of the production, obviously reducing the competitive advantages of certain products. This article discusses foundries, including casting floors and full-scale rolling floors.

Demonstration of engineering arts and innovative technologies

Keywords: NP AVOK, forum, conference

XXXI conference and exhibition Moscow Energy Efficient City took place in Moscow from 29 until 31 October.

The main goal of the forum demonstration of implemented innovative energy efficient projects and equipment that have confirmed their energy efficiency on practice, as well as discussion of the priority methods of optimization of energy consumption of various buildings, taking into consideration improvement of the quality of their microclimate.

Beginning of the thermal stability theory

Yu.A. Tabunschikov, Doctor of Engineering, Professor at Moscow Architectural Institute

Keywords: thermal theory, thermal stability theory

A brief discussion of the history of thermal theory of building envelopes that was subsequently referred to as thermal stability theory.

Orest Evgenyevich Vlasov

A.Yu. Gusev, Assistant Professor, FGBOU VPO Moscow State Civil University

A.A. Malysheva, Senior Lecturer, FGBOU VPO Moscow State Civil University

Keywords: thermal theory, thermal stability theory

Industry historical pages column in this edition is dedicated to Orest Evgenyevich Vlasov well-known Russian scientist who laid foundation for the thermo-technical theory of building envelope, subsequently referred to as thermal stability theory.





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